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Service-Oriented Architecture: Concepts, Technology, and Design

Preface

Chapter 1 – Introduction

1.1 Why this book is important 1
1.1.1 The false SOA 2
1.1.2 The ideal SOA 3
1.1.3 The real SOA 4
1.2 Objectives of this book 4
1.2.1 Understanding SOA, service-orientation, and Web services 5
1.2.2 Learning how to build SOA with Web services 5
1.3 Who this book is for 6
1.4 What this book does not cover 6
1.5 How this book is organized 7
1.5.1 Part I: SOA and Web Services Fundamentals 8
1.5.2 Part II: SOA and WS-* Extensions 10
1.5.3 Part III: SOA and Service-Orientation 13
1.5.4 Part IV: Building SOA (Planning and Analysis) 14
1.5.5 Part V: Building SOA (Technology and Design) 16
1.5.6 Conventions 19
1.6 Additional information 19
1.6.1 The XML & Web Services Integration Framework (XWIF) 19
1.6.2 www.serviceoriented.ws 20
1.6.3 Contact the Author 20

Chapter 2 – Case Studies

2.1 How case studies are used 22
2.1.1 Style characteristics 22
2.1.2 Relationship to abstract content 22
2.1.3 Code samples 23
2.2 Case #1 background: RailCo Ltd 23
2.2.1 History 23
2.2.2 Technical infrastructure 23
2.2.3 Automation solutions 24
2.2.4 Business goals and obstacles 24
2.3 Case #2 background: Transit Line Systems Inc 25
2.3.1 History 26
2.3.2 Technical infrastructure 26
2.3.3 Automation solutions 27
2.3.4 Business goals and obstacles 27

Part I – Services Fundamentals
Chapter 3 – Introducing SOA

3.1 Fundamental SOA 32
3.1.1 A service-oriented analogy 32
3.1.2 How services encapsulate logic 33
3.1.3 How services relate 35
3.1.4 How services communicate 35
3.1.5 How services are designed 36
3.1.6 How services are built 37
3.1.7 Primitive SOA 38
3.2 Common characteristics of contemporary SOA 40
3.2.1 Contemporary SOA is at the core of the service-oriented computing platform 41
3.2.2 Contemporary SOA increases quality of service 42
3.2.3 Contemporary SOA is fundamentally autonomous 42
3.2.4 Contemporary SOA is based on open standards 43
3.2.5 Contemporary SOA supports vendor diversity 43
3.2.6 Contemporary SOA promotes discovery 44
3.2.7 Contemporary SOA fosters intrinsic interoperability 45
3.2.8 Contemporary SOA promotes federation 45
3.2.9 Contemporary SOA promotes architectural composability 46
3.2.10 Contemporary SOA fosters inherent reusability 47
3.2.11 Contemporary SOA emphasizes extensibility 48
3.2.12 Contemporary SOA supports a service-oriented business modeling paradigm
3.2.13 Contemporary SOA implements layers of abstraction 49
3.2.14 Contemporary SOA promotes loose coupling throughout the enterprise 50
3.2.15 Contemporary SOA promotes organizational agility 51
3.2.16 Contemporary SOA is a building block 52
3.2.17 Contemporary SOA is an evolution 53
3.2.18 Contemporary SOA is still maturing 53
3.2.19 Contemporary SOA is an achievable ideal 53
3.2.20 Defining SOA 54
3.2.21 Separating concrete characteristics 55
3.3 Common misperceptions about SOA 56
3.3.1 “An application that uses Web services is service-oriented.” 56
3.3.2 “SOA is just a marketing term used to re-brand Web services.” 57
3.3.3 “SOA is just a marketing term used to re-brand distributed computing with Web services.”57
3.3.4 “SOA simplifies distributed computing.” 57
3.3.5 “An application with Web services that uses WS-* extensions is service-oriented.” 58
3.3.6 “If you understand Web services you won’t have a problem building SOA.” 58
3.3.7 “Once you go SOA, everything becomes interoperable.” 59
3.4 Common tangible benefits of SOA 59
3.4.1 Improved integration (and intrinsic interoperability) 60
3.4.2 Inherent reuse 60
3.4.3 Streamlined architectures and solutions 61
3.4.4 Leveraging the legacy investment 61
3.4.5 Establishing standardized XML data representation 62
3.4.6 Focused investment on communications infrastructure 63
3.4.7 “Best-of-breed” alternatives 63
3.4.8 Organizational agility 63
3.5 Common pitfalls of adopting SOA 64
3.5.1 Building service-oriented architectures like traditional distributed architectures 65
3.5.2 Not standardizing SOA 65
3.5.3 Not creating a transition plan 66
3.5.4 Not starting with an XML foundation architecture 67
3.5.5 Not understanding SOA performance requirements 67
3.5.6 Not understanding Web services security 68
3.5.7 Not keeping in touch with product platforms and standards development 69

Chapter 4 – The Evolution of SOA

4.1 An SOA timeline (from XML to Web services to SOA) 72
4.1.1 XML: a brief history 72
4.1.2 Web services: a brief history 73
4.1.3 SOA: a brief history 74
4.1.4 How SOA is re-shaping XML and Web services 76
4.2 The continuing evolution of SOA (standards organizations and contributing vendors) 78
4.2.1 “Standards” vs “Specifications” vs “Extensions” 78
4.2.2 Standards organizations that contribute to SOA 79
4.2.3 Major vendors that contribute to SOA 82
4.3 The roots of SOA (comparing SOA to past architectures) 86
4.3.1 What is architecture? 86
4.3.2 SOA vs client-server architecture 88
4.3.3 SOA vs distributed Internet architecture 95
4.3.4 SOA vs hybrid Web service architecture 104
4.3.5 Service-orientation and object-orientation (Part I) 107

Chapter 5 – Web Services and Primitive SOA

5.1 The Web services framework 111
5.2 Services (as Web services) 112
5.2.1 Service roles 114
5.2.2 Service models 126
5.3 Service descriptions (with WSDL) 131
5.3.1 Service endpoints and service descriptions 133
5.3.2 Abstract description 134
5.3.3 Concrete description 135
5.3.4 Metadata and service contracts 136
5.3.5 Semantic descriptions 137
5.3.6 Service description advertisement and discovery 138
5.4 Messaging (with SOAP) 142
5.4.1 Messages 143
5.4.2 Nodes 149
5.4.3 Message paths 152

Part II – SOA and WS-* Extensions
Chapter 6 – Web Services and Contemporary SOA (Part I: Activity Management and Composition)

What is “WS-*”? 157
6.1 Message exchange patterns 162
6.1.1 Primitive MEPs 163
6.1.2 MEPs and SOAP 169
6.1.3 MEPs and WSDL 169
6.1.4 MEPs and SOA 171
6.2 Service activity 172
6.2.1 Primitive and complex service activities 174
6.2.2 Service activities and SOA 175
6.3 Coordination 177
6.3.1 Coordinator composition 179
6.3.2 Coordination types and coordination protocols 180
6.3.3 Coordination contexts and coordination participants 180
6.3.4 The activation and registration process 181
6.3.5 The completion process 182
6.3.6 Coordination and SOA 183
6.4 Atomic transactions 186
6.4.1 ACID transactions 187
6.4.2 Atomic transaction protocols 188
6.4.3 The atomic transaction coordinator 188
6.4.4 The atomic transaction process 189
6.4.5 Atomic transactions and SOA 191
6.5 Business activities 193
6.5.1 Business activity protocols 194
6.5.2 The business activity coordinator 195
6.5.3 Business activity states 195
6.5.4 Business activities and atomic transactions 196
6.5.5 Business activities and SOA 197
6.6 Orchestration 200
6.6.1 Business protocols and process definition 203
6.6.2 Process services and partner services 203
6.6.3 Basic activities and structured activities 204
6.6.4 Sequences, flows, and links 204
6.6.5 Orchestrations and activities 205
6.6.6 Orchestration and coordination 205
6.6.7 Orchestration and SOA 205
6.7 Choreography 208
6.7.1 Collaboration 209
6.7.2 Roles and participants 210
6.7.3 Relationships and channels 210
6.7.4 Interactions and work units 210
6.7.5 Reusability, composability, and modularity 210
6.7.6 Orchestrations and choreographies 211
6.7.7 Choreography and SOA 212

Chapter 7 – Web Services and Contemporary SOA (Part II: Advanced Messaging, Metadata, and Security)

7.1 Addressing 220
7.1.1 Endpoint references 222
7.1.2 Message information headers 223
7.1.3 Addressing and transport protocol independence 225
7.1.4 Addressing and SOA 225
7.2 Reliable messaging 228
7.2.1 RM Source, RM Destination, Application Source, and Application Destination 230
7.2.2 Sequences 230
7.2.3 Acknowledgements 231
7.2.4 Delivery assurances 233
7.2.5 Reliable messaging and addressing 235
7.2.6 Reliable messaging and SOA 235
7.3 Correlation 238
7.3.1 Correlation in abstract 239
7.3.2 Correlation in MEPs and activities 239
7.3.3 Correlation in coordination 240
7.3.4 Correlation in orchestration 240
7.3.5 Correlation in addressing 240
7.3.6 Correlation in reliable messaging 240
7.3.7 Correlation and SOA 241
7.4 Policies 242
7.4.1 The WS-Policy framework 243
7.4.2 Policy assertions and policy alternatives 244
7.4.3 Policy assertion types and policy vocabularies 245
7.4.4 Policy subjects and policy scopes 245
7.4.5 Policy expressions and policy attachments 245
7.4.6 What you really need to know 245
7.4.7 Policies in coordination 246
7.4.8 Policies in orchestration and choreography 246
7.4.9 Policies in reliable messaging 246
7.4.10 Policies and SOA 246
7.5 Metadata exchange 248
7.5.1 The WS-MetadataExchange specification 249
7.5.2 Get Metadata request and response messages 250
7.5.3 Get request and response messages 251
7.5.4 Selective retrieval of metadata 252
7.5.5 Metadata exchange and service description discovery 252
7.5.6 Metadata exchange and version control 253
7.5.7 Metadata exchange and SOA 254
7.6 Security 257
7.6.1 Identification, authentication, and authorization 259
7.6.2 Single sign-on 260
7.6.3 Confidentiality and integrity 261
7.6.4 Transport-level security and message-level security 262
7.6.5 Encryption and digital signatures 263
7.6.6 Security and SOA 265
7.7 Notification and eventing 266
7.7.1 Publish-and-subscribe in abstract 267
7.7.2 One concept, two specifications 268
7.7.3 The WS-Notification Framework 268
7.7.4 The WS-Eventing specification 271
7.7.5 WS-Notification and WS-Eventing 274
7.7.6 Notification, eventing, and SOA 274

Part III – SOA and Service-Orientation
Chapter 8 – Principles of Service-Orientation

8.1 Service-orientation and the enterprise 280
8.2 Anatomy of a service-oriented architecture 284
8.2.1 Logical components of the Web services framework 284
8.2.2 Logical components of automation logic 285
8.2.3 Components of an SOA 288
8.2.4 How components in an SOA inter-relate 289
8.3 Common principles of service-orientation 290
8.3.1 Services are reusable 292
8.3.2 Services share a formal contract 295
8.3.3 Services are loosely coupled 297
8.3.4 Services abstract underlying logic 298
8.3.5 Services are composable 301
8.3.6 Services are autonomous 303
8.3.7 Services are stateless 307
8.3.8 Services are discoverable 309
8.4 How service-orientation principles inter-relate 311
8.4.1 Service reusability 312
8.4.2 Service contract 313
8.4.3 Service loose coupling 315
8.4.4 Service abstraction 316
8.4.5 Service composability 317
8.4.6 Service autonomy 318
8.4.7 Service statelessness 319
8.4.8 Service discoverability 320
8.5 Service-orientation and object-orientation (Part II) 321
8.6 Native Web service support for service-orientation principles 324

Chapter 9 – Service Layers

9.1 Service-orientation and contemporary SOA 328
9.1.1 Mapping the origins and supporting sources of concrete SOA characteristics 329
9.1.2 Unsupported SOA characteristics 332
9.2 Service layer abstraction 333
9.2.1 Problems solved by layering services 334
9.3 Application service layer 337
9.4 Business service layer 341
9.5 Orchestration service layer 344
9.6 Agnostic services 346
9.7 Service layer configuration scenarios 347
9.7.1 Scenario #1: Hybrid application services only 348
9.7.2 Scenario #2: Hybrid and utility application services 349
9.7.3 Scenario #3: Task-centric business services and utility application services 349
9.7.4 Scenario #4: Task-centric business services, entity-centric business services, and utility application services 350
9.7.5 Scenario #5: Process services, hybrid application services, and utility application services 350
9.7.6 Scenario #6: Process services, task-centric business services, and utility application services 351
9.7.7 Scenario #7: Process services, task-centric business services, entity-centric business services, and utility application services 352
9.7.8 Scenario #8: Process services, entity-centric business services, and utility application services 352

Part IV – Building SOA (Planning and Analysis)
Chapter 10 – SOA Delivery Strategies

10.1 SOA delivery lifecycle phases 358
10.1.1 Basic phases of the SOA delivery lifecycle 358
10.1.2 Service-oriented analysis 359
10.1.3 Service-oriented design 359
10.1.4 Service development 360
10.1.5 Service testing 360
10.1.6 Service deployment 361
10.1.7 Service administration 361
10.1.8 SOA delivery strategies 362
10.2 The top-down strategy 363
10.2.1 Process 363
10.2.2 Pros and cons 365
10.3 The bottom-up strategy 366
10.3.1 Process 367
10.3.2 Pros and cons 368
10.4 The agile strategy 370
10.4.1 Process 370
10.4.2 Pros and cons 373

Chapter 11 – Service-Oriented Analysis (Part I: Introduction)

11.1 Introduction to service-oriented analysis 377
11.1.1 Objectives of service-oriented analysis 377
11.1.2 The service-oriented analysis process 377
11.2 Benefits of a business-centric SOA 382
11.2.1 Business services build agility into business models 383
11.2.2 Business services prepare a process for orchestration 384
11.2.3 Business services enable reuse 384
11.2.4 Only business services can realize the service-oriented enterprise 385
11.3 Deriving business services 386
11.3.1 Sources from which business services can be derived 387
11.3.2 Types of derived business services 392
11.3.3 Business services and orchestration 395

Chapter 12 – Service-Oriented Analysis (Part II: Service Modeling)

12.1 Service modeling (a step-by-step process) 398
12.1.1 “Services” versus “Service Candidates” 398
12.1.2 Process description 399
12.2 Service modeling guidelines 416
12.2.1 Take into account potential cross-process reusability of logic being encapsulated (task-centric business service candidates) 416
12.2.2 Consider potential intra-process reusability of logic being encapsulated (task-centric business service candidates) 417
12.2.3 Factor in process-related dependencies (task-centric business service candidates) 417
12.2.4 Model for cross-application reuse (application service candidates) 418
12.2.5 Speculate on further decomposition requirements 418
12.2.6 Identify logical units of work with explicit boundaries 419
12.2.7 Prevent logic boundary creep 419
12.2.8 Emulate process services when not using orchestration (task-centric business service candidates) 420
12.2.9 Target a balanced model 421
12.2.10 Classify service modeling logic 422
12.2.11 Allocate appropriate modeling resources 422
12.2.12 Create and publish business service modeling standards 422
12.3 Classifying service model logic 423
12.3.1 The SOE model 424
12.3.2 The enterprise business model 426
12.3.3 “Building Blocks” versus “Service Models” 426
12.3.4 Basic modeling building blocks 426
12.4 Contrasting service modeling approaches (an example) 430

Part V – Building SOA (Technology and Design)
Chapter 13 – Service-Oriented Design (Part I: Introduction)

13.1 Introduction to service-oriented design 448
13.1.1 Objectives of service-oriented design 448
13.1.2 “Design standards” versus “Industry standards” 449
13.1.3 The service-oriented design process 449
13.1.4 Prerequisites 451
13.2 WSDL-related XML Schema language basics 453
13.2.1 The schema element 454
13.2.2 The element element 455
13.2.3 The complexType and simpleType elements 455
13.2.4 The import and include elements 456
13.2.5 Other important elements 456
13.3 WSDL language basics 457
13.3.1 The definitions element 458
13.3.2 The types element 459
13.3.3 The message and part elements 461
13.3.4 The portType, interface, and operation elements 462
13.3.5 The input and output elements (when used with operation) 462
13.3.6 The binding element 463
13.3.7 The input and output elements (when used with binding) 464
13.3.8 The service, port, and endpoint elements 465
13.3.9 The import element 465
13.3.10 The documentation element 466
13.4 SOAP language basics 466
13.4.1 The Envelope element 468
13.4.2 The Header element 468
13.4.3 The Body element 468
13.4.4 The Fault element 470
13.5 Service interface design tools 471
13.5.1 Auto-generation 471
13.5.2 Design tools 472
13.5.3 Hand coding 473

Chapter 14 – Service-Oriented Design (Part II: SOA Composition Guidelines)

14.1 Steps to composing SOA 476
14.1.1 Step 1: Choose service layers 478
14.1.2 Step 2: Position core standards 478
14.1.3 Step 3: Choose SOA extensions 478
14.2 Considerations for choosing service layers 478
14.3 Considerations for positioning core SOA standards 481
14.3.1 Industry standards and SOA 481
14.3.2 XML and SOA 482
14.3.3 The WS-I Basic Profile 483
14.3.4 WSDL and SOA 485
14.3.5 XML Schema and SOA 485
14.3.6 SOAP and SOA 486
14.3.7 Namespaces and SOA 487
14.3.8 UDDI and SOA 488
14.4 Considerations for choosing SOA extensions 490
14.4.1 Choosing SOA characteristics 490
14.4.2 Choosing WS-* specifications 491
14.4.3 WS-BPEL and SOA 492

Chapter 15 – Service-Oriented Design (Part III: Service Design)

15.1 Service design overview 497
15.1.1 Design standards 498
15.1.2 About the process descriptions 498
15.1.3 Prerequisites 499
15.2 Entity-centric business service design (a step-by-step process) 501
15.2.1 Process description 502
15.3 Application service design (a step-by-step process) 522
15.3.1 Process description 523
15.4 Task-centric business service design (a step-by-step process) 540
15.4.1 Process description 540
15.5 Service design guidelines 555
15.5.1 Apply naming standards 555
15.5.2 Apply a suitable level of interface granularity 556
15.5.3 Design service operations to be inherently extensible 558
15.5.4 Identify known and potential service requestors 559
15.5.5 Consider using modular WSDL documents 559
15.5.6 Use namespaces carefully 560
15.5.7 Use the SOAP document and literal attribute values 561
15.5.8 Use WS-I Profiles even if WS-I compliance isn’t required 563
15.5.9 Document services with metadata 563

Chapter 16 – Service-Oriented Design (Part IV: Business Process Design)

16.1 WS-BPEL language basics 566
16.1.1 A brief history of BPEL4WS and WS-BPEL 567
16.1.2 Prerequisites 568
16.1.3 The process element 568
16.1.4 The partnerLinks and partnerLink elements 569
16.1.5 The partnerLinkType element 570
16.1.6 The variables element 571
16.1.7 The getVariableProperty and getVariableData functions 572
16.1.8 The sequence element 573
16.1.9 The invoke element 574
16.1.10 The receive element 575
16.1.11 The reply element 576
16.1.12 The switch, case, and otherwise elements 577
16.1.13 The assign, copy, from, and to elements 577
16.1.14 faultHandlers, catch, and catchAll elements 578
16.1.15 Other WS-BPEL elements 579
16.2 WS-Coordination overview 581
16.2.1 The CoordinationContext element 582
16.2.2 The Identifier and Expires elements 583
16.2.3 The CoordinationType element 583
16.2.4 The RegistrationService element 583
16.2.5 Designating the WS-BusinessActivity coordination type 584
16.2.6 Designating the WS-AtomicTransaction coordination type 584
16.3 Service-oriented business process design (a step-by-step process) 585
16.3.1 Process description 586

Chapter 17 – Fundamental WS-* Extensions

You mustUnderstand this 614
17.1 WS-Addressing language basics 615
17.1.1 The EndpointReference element 616
17.1.2 Message information header elements 617
17.1.3 WS-Addressing reusability 620
17.2 WS-ReliableMessaging language basics 622
17.2.1 The Sequence, MessageNumber, and LastMessage elements 623
17.2.2 The SequenceAcknowledgement and AcknowledgementRange elements 625
17.2.3 The Nack element 626
17.2.4 The AckRequested element 627
17.2.5 Other WS-ReliableMessaging elements 628
17.3 WS-Policy language basics 629
17.3.1 The Policy element and common policy assertions 630
17.3.2 The ExactlyOne element 631
17.3.3 The All element 632
17.3.4 The Usage attribute 633
17.3.5 The Preference attribute 633
17.3.6 The PolicyReference element 633
17.3.7 The PolicyURIs attribute 634
17.3.8 The PolicyAttachment element 635
17.3.9 Additional types of policy assertions 635
17.4 WS-MetadataExchange language basics 636
17.4.1 The GetMetadata element 637
17.4.2 The Dialect element 638
17.4.3 The Identifier element 639
17.4.4 The Metadata, MetadataSection, and MetadataReference elements 640
17.4.5 The Get message 641
17.5 WS-Security language basics 642
17.5.1 The Security element (WS-Security) 644
17.5.2 The UsernameToken, Username, and Password elements (WS-Security) 644
17.5.3 The BinarySecurityToken element (WS-Security) 644
17.5.4 The SecurityTokenReference element (WS-Security) 644
17.5.5 Composing Security element contents (WS-Security) 645
17.5.6 The EncryptedData element (XML-Encryption) 646
17.5.7 The CipherData, CipherValue, and CipherReference elements (XML-Encryption) 647
17.5.8 XML-Signature elements 648

Chapter 18 – SOA Platforms

18.1 SOA platform basics 652
18.1.1 Basic platform building blocks 653
18.1.2 Common SOA platform layers 654
18.1.3 Relationship between SOA layers and technologies 655
18.1.4 Fundamental service technology architecture 656
18.1.5 Vendor platforms 667
18.2 SOA support in J2EE 668
18.2.1 Platform overview 668
18.2.2 Primitive SOA support 681
18.2.3 Support for service-orientation principles 682
18.2.4 Contemporary SOA support 683
18.3 SOA support in .NET 688
18.3.1 Platform overview 688
18.3.2 Primitive SOA support 697
18.3.3 Support for service-orientation principles 698
18.3.4 Contemporary SOA support 700
18.4 Integration considerations 703

Appendix A – Case Studies: Conclusion

A.1 RailCo Ltd 708
A.2 Transit Line Systems Inc 711
A.3 The Oasis Car Wash 715

Appendix B – Service Models Reference
About the Author 721
About SOA Systems 723
About the Photographs 725
Index 727-760
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