Cloud Computing: Concepts, Technology & Architecture

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Objectives of This Book
1.2 What This Book Does Not Cover
1.3 Who This Book Is For
1.4 How This Book Is Organized
Part I: Fundamental Cloud Computing
Part II: Cloud Computing Mechanisms
Part III: Cloud Computing Architecture
Part IV: Working with Clouds
Part V: Appendices
1.5 Conventions
Symbols and Figures
Summary of Key Points
1.6 Additional Information
Updates, Errata, and Resources (
Referenced Specifications (
The Service Technology Magazine (
International Service Technology Symposium (
What Is Cloud? (
What Is REST? (
Cloud Computing Design Patterns (
Service-Orientation (™ Certified Cloud (CCP) Professional (® SOA Certified (SOACP) Professional (
Notification Service

Chapter 2: Case Study Background

2.1 Case Study #1: ATN
Technical Infrastructure and Environment
Business Goals and New Strategy
Roadmap and Implementation Strategy
2.2 Case Study #2: DTGOV
Technical Infrastructure and Environment
Business Goals and New Strategy
Roadmap and Implementation Strategy
2.3 Case Study #3: Innovartus Technologies Inc.
Technical Infrastructure and Environment
Business Goals and Strategy
Roadmap and Implementation Strategy

Chapter 3: Understanding Cloud Computing

3.1 Origins and Influences
A Brief History
Business Drivers
Capacity Planning
Cost Reduction
Organizational Agility
Technology Innovations
Grid Computing
Technology Innovations vs. Enabling Technologies
3.2 Basic Concepts and Terminology
IT Resource
Cloud Consumers and Cloud Providers
Horizontal Scaling
Vertical Scaling
Cloud Service
Cloud Service Consumer
3.3 Goals and Benefits
Reduced Investments and Proportional Costs
Increased Scalability
Increased Availability and Reliability
3.4 Risks and Challenges
Increased Security Vulnerabilities
Reduced Operational Governance Control
Limited Portability Between Cloud Providers
Multi-Regional Compliance and Legal Issues

Chapter 4: Fundamental Concepts and Models

4.1 Roles and Boundaries
Cloud Provider
Cloud Consumer
Cloud Service Owner
Cloud Resource Administrator
Additional Roles
Organizational Boundary
Trust Boundary
4.2 Cloud Characteristics
On-Demand Usage
Ubiquitous Access
Multitenancy (and Resource Pooling)
Measured Usage
4.3 Cloud Delivery Models
Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS)
Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS)
Software-as-a-Service (SaaS)
Comparing Cloud Delivery Models
Combining Cloud Delivery Models
IaaS + PaaS
IaaS + PaaS + SaaS
4.4 Cloud Deployment Models
Public Clouds
Community Clouds
Private Clouds
Hybrid Clouds
Other Cloud Deployment Models

Chapter 5: Cloud-Enabling Technology

5.1 Broadband Networks and Internet Architecture
Internet Service Providers (ISPs)
Connectionless Packet Switching (Datagram Networks)
Router-Based Interconnectivity
Physical Network
Transport Layer Protocol
Application Layer Protocol
Technical and Business Considerations
Connectivity Issues
Network Bandwidth and Latency Issues
Cloud Carrier and Cloud Provider Selection
5.2 Data Center Technology
Standardization and Modularity
Remote Operation and Management
High Availability
Security-Aware Design, Operation, and Management
Computing Hardware
Storage Hardware
Network Hardware
Carrier and External Networks Interconnection
Web-Tier Load Balancing and Acceleration
LAN Fabric
SAN Fabric
NAS Gateways
Other Considerations
5.3 Virtualization Technology
Hardware Independence
Server Consolidation
Resource Replication
Operating System-Based Virtualization
Hardware-Based Virtualization
Virtualization Management
Other Considerations
5.4 Web Technology
Basic Web Technology
Web Applications
5.5 Multitenant Technology
5.6 Service Technology
Web Services
REST Services
Service Agents
Service Middleware
5.7 Case Study Example

Chapter 6: Fundamental Cloud Security

6.1 Basic Terms and Concepts
Security Controls
Security Mechanisms
Security Policies
6.2 Threat Agents
Anonymous Attacker
Malicious Service Agent
Trusted Attacker
Malicious Insider
6.3 Cloud Security Threats
Traffic Eavesdropping
Malicious Intermediary
Denial of Service
Insufficient Authorization
Virtualization Attack
Overlapping Trust Boundaries
6.4 Additional Considerations
Flawed Implementations
Security Policy Disparity
Risk Management
6.5 Case Study Example

Chapter 7: Cloud Infrastructure Mechanisms

7.1 Logical Network Perimeter
Case Study Example
7.2 Virtual Server
Case Study Example
7.3 Cloud Storage Device
Cloud Storage Levels
Network Storage Interfaces
Object Storage Interfaces
Database Storage Interfaces
Relational Data Storage
Non-Relational Data Storage
Case Study Example
7.4 Cloud Usage Monitor
Monitoring Agent
Resource Agent
Polling Agent
Case Study Example
7.5 Resource Replication
Case Study Example
7.6 Ready-Made Environment
Case Study Example

Chapter 8: Specialized Cloud Mechanisms

8.1 Automated Scaling Listener
Case Study Example
8.2 Load Balancer
Case Study Example
8.3 SLA Monitor
Case Study Example
SLA Monitor Polling Agent
SLA Monitoring Agent
8.4 Pay-Per-Use Monitor
Case Study Example
8.5 Audit Monitor
Case Study Example
8.6 Failover System
Case Study Example
8.7 Hypervisor
Case Study Example
8.8 Resource Cluster
Case Study Example
8.9 Multi-Device Broker
Case Study Example
8.10 State Management Database
Case Study Example

Chapter 9: Cloud Management Mechanisms

9.1 Remote Administration System
Case Study Example
9.2 Resource Management System
Case Study Example
9.3 SLA Management System
Case Study Example
9.4 Billing Management System
Case Study Example

Chapter 10: Cloud Security Mechanisms

10.1 Encryption
Symmetric Encryption
Asymmetric Encryption
Case Study Example
10.2 Hashing
Case Study Example
10.3 Digital Signature
Case Study Example
10.4 Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)
Case Study Example
10.5 Identity and Access Management (IAM)
Case Study Example
10.6 Single Sign-On (SSO)
Case Study Example
10.7 Cloud-Based Security Groups
Case Study Example
10.8 Hardened Virtual Server Images
Case Study Example

Chapter 11: Fundamental Cloud Architectures

11.1 Workload Distribution Architecture
11.2 Resource Pooling Architecture
11.3 Dynamic Scalability Architecture
11.4 Elastic Resource Capacity Architecture
11.5 Service Load Balancing Architecture
11.6 Cloud Bursting Architecture
11.7 Elastic Disk Provisioning Architecture
11.8 Redundant Storage Architecture
11.9 Case Study Example

Chapter 12: Advanced Cloud Architectures

12.1 Hypervisor Clustering Architecture
12.2 Load Balanced Virtual Server Instances Architecture
12.3 Non-Disruptive Service Relocation Architecture
12.4 Zero Downtime Architecture
12.5 Cloud Balancing Architecture
12.6 Resource Reservation Architecture
12.7 Dynamic Failure Detection and Recovery Architecture
12.8 Bare-Metal Provisioning Architecture
12.9 Rapid Provisioning Architecture
12.10 Storage Workload Management Architecture
12.11 Case Study Example

Chapter 13: Specialized Cloud Architectures

13.1 Direct I/O Access Architecture
13.2 Direct LUN Access Architecture
13.3 Dynamic Data Normalization Architecture
13.4 Elastic Network Capacity Architecture
13.5 Cross-Storage Device Vertical Tiering Architecture
13.6 Intra-Storage Device Vertical Data Tiering Architecture
13.7 Load Balanced Virtual Switches Architecture
13.8 Multipath Resource Access Architecture
13.9 Persistent Virtual Network Configuration Architecture
13.10 Redundant Physical Connection for Virtual Servers Architecture
13.11 Storage Maintenance Window Architecture

Chapter 14: Cloud Delivery Model Considerations

14.1 Cloud Delivery Models: The Cloud Provider Perspective
Building IaaS Environments
Data Centers
Scalability and Reliability
Equipping PaaS Environments
Scalability and Reliability
Optimizing SaaS Environments
14.2 Cloud Delivery Models: The Cloud Consumer
Working with IaaS Environments
IT Resource Provisioning Considerations
Working with PaaS Environments
IT Resource Provisioning Considerations
Working with SaaS Services
14.3 Case Study Example

Chapter 15: Cost Metrics and Pricing Models

15.1 Business Cost Metrics
Up-Front and On-Going Costs
Additional Costs
Case Study Example
Product Catalog Browser
On-Premise Up-Front Costs
On-Premise On-Going Costs
Cloud-Based Up-Front Costs
Cloud-Based On-Going Costs
Client Database
On-Premise Up-Front Costs
On-Premise On-Going Costs
Cloud-Based Up-Front Costs
Cloud-Based On-Going Costs
15.2 Cloud Usage Cost Metrics
Network Usage
Inbound Network Usage Metric
Outbound Network Usage Metric
Intra-Cloud WAN Usage Metric
Server Usage
On-Demand Virtual Machine Instance Allocation Metric
Reserved Virtual Machine Instance Allocation Metric
Cloud Storage Device Usage
On-Demand Storage Space Allocation Metric
I/O Data Transferred Metric
Cloud Service Usage
Application Subscription Duration Metric
Number of Nominated Users Metric
Number of Transactions Users Metric
15.3 Cost Management Considerations
Pricing Models
Additional Considerations
Case Study Example
Virtual Server On-Demand Instance Allocation
Virtual Server Reserved Instance Allocation
Cloud Storage Device
WAN Traffic

Chapter 16: Service Quality Metrics and SLAs

16.1 Service Quality Metrics
Service Availability Metrics
Availability Rate Metric
Outage Duration Metric
Service Reliability Metrics
Mean-Time Between Failures (MTBF) Metric
Reliability Rate Metric
Service Performance Metrics
Network Capacity Metric
Storage Device Capacity Metric
Server Capacity Metric
Web Application Capacity Metric
Instance Starting Time Metric
Response Time Metric
Completion Time Metric
Service Scalability Metrics
Server Scalability (Horizontal) Metric
Server Scalability (Horizontal) Metric
Server Scalability (Vertical) Metric
Service Resiliency Metrics
Mean-Time to Switchover (MTSO) Metric
Mean-Time System Recovery (MTSR) Metric
16.2 Case Study Example
16.3 SLA Guidelines
16.4 Case Study Example
Scope and Applicability
Service Quality Guarantees
Usage of Financial Credits
SLA Exclusions

Appendix A: Case Study Conclusions

A.3 Innovartus

Appendix B: Industry Standards Organizations

B.1 National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
B.2 Cloud Security Alliance (CSA)
B.3 Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF)
B.4 Storage Networking Industry Association (SNIA)
B.5 Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS)
B.6 The Open Group
B.7 Open Cloud Consortium (OCC)
B.8 European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI)
B.9 Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA)
B.10 Liberty Alliance
B.11 Open Grid Forum (OGF)

Appendix C: Mapping Mechanisms to Characteristics
Appendix D: Data Center Facilities (TIA-942)

D.1 Primary Rooms
Electrical Room
Mechanical Room
Storage and Staging
Offices, Operations Center, and Support
Telecommunications Entrance
Computer Room
D.2 Environmental Controls
External Electrical Power Provider Interconnection
Power Distribution
Uninterruptible Power Source (UPS)
Power Engine-Generator
D.3 Infrastructure Redundancy Summary

Appendix E: Cloud-Adapted Risk Management Framework

E.1 Security Conservation Principle
E.2 The Risk Management Framework

Appendix F: Cloud Provisioning Contracts

F.1 Cloud Provisioning Contract Structure
Terms of Service
Service Usage Policy
Security and Privacy Policy
Warranties and Liabilities
Rights and Responsibilities
Termination and Renewal
Specifications and SLAs
Pricing and Billing
Other Issues
Legal and Compliance Issues
Auditability and Accountability
Changes in the Contract Terms and Conditions
F.2 Cloud Provider Selection Guidelines
Cloud Provider Viability

Appendix G: Cloud Business Case Template

G.1 Business Case Identification
G.2 Business Needs
G.3 Target Cloud Environment
G.4 Technical Issues
G.5 Economic Factors

Appendix H: Emerging Technologies

H.1 Autonomic Computing
H.2 Grid Computing
Service Grids

About the Authors

Thomas Erl
Zaigham Mahmood
Ricardo Puttini

About the Foreword Contributor

Pamela J. Wise-Martinez, MSc

About the Contributors

Gustavo Azzolin, BSc, MSc
Amin Naserpour
Vinícius Pacheco, MSc
Matthias Ziegler